Infertility is a serious problem affecting most couples where a female is unable to get pregnant or even carry a pregnancy to full term or a male being unable to make a fertile female pregnant. The intensity of infertility usually varies between men and women although the causes are different too. Immune infertility which interferes with sperm motility and transportation after ejaculation and may be caused by surgery, trauma, breakdown of a man’s blood-testis barrier, prostatitis, infections, and cancer are some of the causes of infertility in men. Another cause is where the testes may produce low or poor-quality sperms due to conditions such as varicocele among others. Support of the testes such as hormonal problems and affected general health may also be prevented due to conditions such as obesity, coeliac disease, drug and substance abuse, DNA damage and epigenetic conditions leading to infertility.
Women who suffer from infertility are highly stigmatized in their societies and it usually occurs from diseases, poor nutrition as well as uterus malformations. Causes of infertility in women are categorized into three including genetic, acquired or can also be due to the location of the infertility problem in the female reproductive systems. Chromosomal abnormalities leading to various mutations of the sex chromosomes is the major cause of chromosomal infertility in women. Infertility as a result of acquired factors maybe as a result of advancement in age, smoking tobacco, sexually transmitted infections, obesity and eating disorders, chemotherapy diabetes, coeliac disease, kidney and liver diseases among other. On the location in the reproductive organs in female, infertility may occur as a result of genetic defects on the ovaries, endometriosis and tubal occlusion in the fallopian tube, fibroids and malformation in the uterus, antisperm antibodies in the cervix, as well as vaginal obstruction.
Diagnosis of male and female infertility should be done in certified clinic that has professionals who deal with fertility issues since for one to get proper treatment, the underlying cause has to be properly identified. Various male infertility treatment method includes surgery, taking of vitamin E medication as well as hormonal therapy and they have to be administered depending on the underlying cause of the infertility. The management of infertility in women is mainly through prevention of the factors that may lead to infertility. Leading a lifestyle that is healthy with abundant exercises and reduced uptake of caffeine, alcohol and smoking are some of the methods that a female can use to prevent infertility. One can also prevent or treat existing diseases, avoid delaying parenthood as well as freezing the eggs to preserve one’s fertility.